Herrlichkeitsmühle Issum

current exhibition

The Herrlichkeitsmühle is the best known and most original of the Issum mills. Built in 1768, it was first given monument status in 1930. For almost 250 years, it has been an indispensable part of the Issum community.

Originally, a Bockwindmühle stood at its present location. It was the old “Herrlichkeitsmühle” – as still depicted in the silver shield of the royal chain of the Katharinen-Bruderschaft, which the “Herrlichkeitsmüller” Wilhelminus Oerbach wore in 1763. It was probably the only and also the last representation of the old mill. For in 1768 the dilapidated box mill was replaced by the octagonal mill, whose oak timber was felled on the nearby Oermter Berg.

The type of construction is an octagonal drive-through Dutchman’s mill, also called a mountain mill (with a heaped-up mill hill and drive-through). This special type of Dutchman mill had the advantage that it could be built on lighter ground (sandy soil) due to its wooden construction.

Since the 17th century these mills were built in the Lower Rhine area. The lower part is made of brick, while the upper part usually consists of an octagonal wooden construction, usually covered with shingles. In many cases, these mills were also equipped as gallery mills (usually with a high tower) or bricked-up mill mounts, had a much higher stability and offered more space for goods and technical equipment.

Around 1840, there were still about 260 windmills in the Rhine province. Here, where the wind can blow unhindered, one found good conditions for the operation of mills. Of the approximately 122 windmills still in existence today on the Lower Rhine, only about 30 are considered to be largely preserved, and only about 15 of them are still in operation.